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北京超额完成今年各类保障性住房建设任务

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 中宇卫浴能否起死回生? (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

圣象地板武汉打假 提交70份证据索赔千万

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

美国大学与雇主协会(National Association of Colleges and Employers)进行的一项新研究表明,48%的美国公司计划于2011年招募物流专业研究生。供应链管理人才稀缺的现象,恰恰印证了这一调研结果。
When scientists discover how to shrink humans to five inches tall as a solution to overpopulation, Paul (Matt Damon) and his wife Audrey (Kristen Wiig) decide to abandon their stressed lives in order to get small and move to a new downsized community, a choice that triggers life-changing adventures.
As it happened, the lenders to Seppenwolde never lost a guilder. Within weeks, they had liquidated all the East India shares and had recovered the money they had loaned.
Nirvana in Fire unexpectedly achieved a tremendous success, rising like a star among the TV dramas in the fall of 2015. Also adapted from an online novel of the same name written by Hai Yan, the adaptation for the first time found its way on the screen in September 2015. Staring Hu Ge and Liu Tao, the series shows a talented military strategist endeavoring to clear his name through continuous fights. The fictional characters and dynasty let the adaptation smartly avoid being criticized for not sticking to historical accuracy. And the drama`s delicate internal settings and impeccable storyline were highly praised by the audiences.
v. 降低,婉谢
该调查发现,211和985重点建设高校毕业生的薪酬水平大幅度领先普通高校毕业生。
这枚奖牌拍出的高价远远超过了该拍卖行预计的成交金额——5万美元到10万美元。此前,仅有1903年诺贝尔和平奖奖牌在1985年被拍卖,拍得将近1.7万美元。

《美国谍梦》(The Americans),FX,1月28日播出。这部剧精彩地将冷战间谍惊悚剧与家庭剧融为一体,第三季一开始,潜伏在华盛顿的克格勃小队感受到了苏联的阿富汗战争的压力。弗兰克·兰格拉(Frank Langella)加入演员阵容,饰演剧中夫妻间谍的新联系人,取代了玛戈·马丁代尔(Margo Martindale)饰演的克劳迪娅(Claudia)。顺便说一句,八天后NBC即将首播的《忠诚》(Allegiance)是讲述潜伏在美国的俄罗斯间谍的。哈。
二,7月与空客和国家发改委签署谅解备忘录后,上月份商飞以一份十年期债务投资计划成功融资150亿人民币。融资和签署备忘录旨在帮助形成一个成熟的、有竞争力的国内供应链,前者通过注入研发资金,后者通过整合中国供应商在空中客车的全球供应网络。“中国制造2015”计划中提到,到2025年中国供应商有望能提供80%的飞机零部件。
Leading the pack of the best airlines for holiday travel is Hawaiian Airlines, followed by another Pacific Coast-focused carrier, Alaska Airlines. Conversely, the worst airline for holiday travel is New York-based JetBlue Airways, with ExpressJet, a regional carrier, coming in next to last, according to the FlightAware data.
Hurricane Harvey
Czech model Petra Nemcova went for a dress in white, which featured an extremely plunging neckline and thigh-high split. Ensuring that both her lithe legs were highlighted to the max, the stunning blonde made sure all eyes were on her as she sashayed down the red carpet.

Footnotes

  • 集资建职工房成为烂尾 三亿购房款却不知去向
  • 这名女演员在法国尼斯和土耳其遭到袭击后,在Instagram上发表了一封貌似诚挚的信,但为了显示魅力,配图却是一张自己身穿性感内衣的照片。

Issued by the Institute of Social Security Research, Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, the report shows that the return rate of enterprise employees' pension insurance fund reached 3.1 percent, the highest in seven years.
4. Am I eating healthy? The types of foods we eat can greatly affect how we feel both physically and emotionally. Eating too much junk food can lead to crankiness and a relatively low energy level, whereas eating healthy foods can lead to better moods and a more positive energy level.
n. 蛋白质
The U.S. will perform well even if the rest of the world doesn't
population
?援助工人担心在海地的粮食危机,上周那里飓风桑迪造成了52人死亡。联合国也担心洪灾可能导致霍乱病例急剧上升。在加勒比海桑迪造成至少69人遇难。

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References

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