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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

传统上,在教学和研究水平方面,中国大学在国际排名排行榜上的评价要比美国和欧洲的高校逊色一些。

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de去掉,but。去掉but?导演Z(平静):你可以上台了。女演员F:but我还没准备好呢?Z(有点儿烦):哪那么多事儿呀,快点儿!F:but我这可是第一次!Z(强忍):谁没有第一次呀,快!F:but…,Z(已经怒了):哪XX那么多but呀,全都给我de掉,再不上去我就X人了!!!
Payouts also varied substantially between industries and cities. The average bonus at financial institutions was over Rmb17,200, while those in the education sector got less than half of that on average at less than Rmb7,500.
Hurricane Irma topped the search charts in both the U.S. and globally with Matt Lauer being the most searched for person in the U.S. and the world. Here’s the rundown of the top 10’s in the U.S. and globally:

The import side of the equation fared worse in both renminbi- and dollar-terms.
从某些方面来看,《生活真奇怪》(Life Is Strange)与Dontnod Entertainment的科幻动作类游戏《勿忘我》(Remember Me)是两款截然不同的游戏,而从另一些方面来看,这两款章节式的冒险游戏十分类似。两款游戏都采用了虚幻3引擎(Unreal Engine 3),打造了美轮美奂的游戏世界供玩家探索。这两款游戏的名字也都有非常具有女性特征的主角。《生活真奇怪》的故事发生于美国俄勒冈州的阿卡迪亚湾,玩家将操纵青年马克斯o考菲尔德,开始一段包含有五个章节互动剧情的冒险。
I am here to speak on behalf of the starving children around the world whose cries go unheard. 我演讲是为了世界所有忍受饥饿的儿童,而他们的哭泣却无人听见。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

供给不足配套不够 激活“夜经济”如何破题

vt. 补给,供
Now a white-haired grandfather, Belmonte has never regretted missing the 1950 match, particularly since his mother died just a few days later. "I decided not to go, and it was a good decision," he told the reporters.
?007 is almost always calm. (Maybe that's due to all the sex.) Even when people are trying to kill him he's calm. This is sexy. Bond doesn't move unnecessarily. You never see his knee bouncing or hands fidgeting. He speaks slowly and deliberately and is rarely rushed. These are all very charismatic qualities. He has the unflinching eye contact of a predator -- and this increases the chance women will fall in love with him. 007 doesn't gush over girls and show his feelings. He keeps them guessing and uncertainty increases attraction. Bond doesn't smile much and this too makes him sexy because happiness isn't alluring in men. His body language is commanding and he's not afraid to take up space, which is very masculine and appealing. 007 doesn't ramble on and this too is smooth. Bond never slouches. Good posture increases confidence, feelings of power and makes you physically tougher. (Which works out well when you want to look classy in your tuxedo while battling machete wielding evil minions.)

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

这部由塞巴斯蒂安.马拉比(Sebastian Mallaby)所著的《知者:格林斯潘传》(The Man Who Knew),是这项奖金额为3万英镑的奖项的第12位获奖者。该奖项奖励的是年度“最令人瞩目和愉悦的”图书。
会是除巴西、德国和西班牙之外的国家捧得大力神杯吗?
《美国谍梦》(The Americans),FX,1月28日播出。这部剧精彩地将冷战间谍惊悚剧与家庭剧融为一体,第三季一开始,潜伏在华盛顿的克格勃小队感受到了苏联的阿富汗战争的压力。弗兰克·兰格拉(Frank Langella)加入演员阵容,饰演剧中夫妻间谍的新联系人,取代了玛戈·马丁代尔(Margo Martindale)饰演的克劳迪娅(Claudia)。顺便说一句,八天后NBC即将首播的《忠诚》(Allegiance)是讲述潜伏在美国的俄罗斯间谍的。哈。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 这位微软公司创始人的净资产是860亿美元,而一年前则是750亿美元。
  • 天然气价改落地 陶企望“气“却步
  • 他参照美国脱口秀节目主持人的话说:“我一直想和Jay Leno见面,”说这话之前他自己就笑了起来。达拉斯买家俱乐部明星Jared不以为然回应道:“对不起,你又叫什么名字?但观众们似乎意识到了两人之间尴尬的气氛,一位观众开玩笑说:“认为Jared Leto妄想Grinder看着他。”
  • LED照明巨头分拆估值69亿搅动“中国买家”热情
  • 不动产登记平台已实现全国联网
  • 201401/271211.shtmlThe worst password of 2013 is '123456' according to new research.
    This one's just like looking in the mirror, mainly because Derrick Rose was in high school just six years ago in 2006.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 3月全国建材家居景气指数环比升10.39点, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

照明行业“转型”面临三大“挑战” “基因式”升级或能破局

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

“品质租房”应当名副其实

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 格温妮丝·帕特罗(Gwyneth Paltrow)曾出演《莎翁情史》(Shakespeare in Love)获最佳女主角奖,并成为好莱坞明星。为了避免在发表获奖感言时出现混乱,她却把小金人藏了起来,因为“这东西吓坏我了”。
    他说,他和他的女朋友经常通过书信往来,当时他还在上学。他们最后确实结婚了,而且有了4个孩子。
  • To Rouslan Krechetnikov and Hans Mayer for studying the dynamics of liquid-sloshing, to learn what happens when a person walks while carrying a cup of coffee. I`ll give you a hint: it happens between step 7 and 10.
    If you like your comedy with a side of heart-warming feels and poignant cultural commentary, please look no further than The Big Sick, about a comedian who falls in love with a heckler. Their backgrounds could not be more different, which is relatable to anyone in a mixed race relationship.
    有A型人格特征的人往往是高成就的“工作狂”。他们用最后期限激励自己,讨厌延迟和矛盾心理。A型人格的人工作压力更大,工作满意度更低。
    单词petroleum 联想记忆:
    Do your customers trust you? Do they know what you do with their data and are they happy with it? This will be a major issue not just for the N.S.A., Microsoft and Google. Nor will Google Glass be the only product to provoke debate. Trust reduces the cost of doing business and those who don't build relationships of trust with their partners, suppliers and customers will feel the pinch.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 戴德梁行:限购“松绑”难以实质刺激楼市
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 家居市场再迎促销潮 商家陷两难境地

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

o Battery power may turn out to be a transition technology. Cost reductions have been slow in coming, and Tesla needs a 30% improvement in order to build the $35,000 Model 3 it has promised for 2017. Toyota’s recent move was eye-opening. It is allowing a battery-supply deal with Tesla to expire and instead will redouble its work on hydrogen fuel cells. The cost of fuel cells is coming down faster than batteries and fuel cell proponents believe drivers will prefer a relatively rapid refuel with hydrogen to waiting hours to recharge their batteries.
When you are at work, you are supposed to be productive. Otherwise, it's a waste of your time and the company's money. If you are bored and surfing the web most of your work day, you may want to think about looking into job options where you'll get more stimulation and responsibilities.
由于经济增长温和、社会快速老龄化,今年的涨幅较2016年的6.5%有所下降。
(Actually, JetBlue wasn’t the absolute worst airline for departure delays the last three holiday seasons. That crown went to Comair, a regional carrier for Delta Air Lines
Consumer prices rose 2.3 per cent year-on-year, more than expectations of 1.8 per cent. That is the biggest rise since July 2014. They had risen 1.8 per cent in January.
Swipe them free and they'll soar into the sky.
互联网已经让世界变成了平面,Facebook让我们大家团结起来,组成一个大家庭。我们的祖父那一辈人是地区的传承者,我们这代人是国家的传承者,而你们则是世界的传承者。你现在和任何人的联系只有4.74个人的距离,到达全球任何有人居住的角落平均只需要两天时间。你可以踏上旅途。无论是非洲、欧洲、印度、中国还是巴西,前往那些能让你学到最多东西的地方,拥抱那个可以教给你最多东西的国度。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 推出迷你iPhone后,加上中国今年或明年颁发LTE执照,就能最终说服拥有7亿用户的中国移动(China Mobile)和苹果签约。
  • 政策助力 风电将回暖
  • Dawn Hudson, Academy CEO:
    OUTDOOR SPACE: The property is just shy of an acre and a half.
  • 降息催化房地产去库存 一二线房价或略涨
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 俄罗斯的SKN公司将老旧俄国弹药制作成钻石。这就是回收利用!
    又或者,今年是一群有跟虐待、性或其他有关的故事要讲的女性。她们其中几个人在我们的页面上分享了“我也是”(#MeToo)的经历。卡洛塔·加尔(Carlotta Gall)讲述了汉达·阿亚里(Henda Ayari)的故事。后者是一名拥有北非血统的法国公民,也是一名反萨拉菲派活动人士。她指控牛津大学某知名教授强奸了她。
  • 但是美国加州公务员退休基金(Calpers)的高级投资组合经理兼全球治理主管安妮?辛普森(Anne Simpson)却相信,库克的道德立场不仅仅是种姿态。她说:“他对作秀技巧的漠视自有其魅力。蒂姆?库克将苹果这种优雅和卓越的理念应用到这些新的领域。”加州公务员退休基金是苹果的重要股东。
    One of the main shackles on the economy over the past four years has been stagnant wages. Hourly earnings have risen an average of 2% annually — just two-thirds of the long-term U.S. average.
  • TOGETHERNESS (HBO, Jan. 11) HBO’s Sunday night comedy block already covers early-20-something New York women (“Girls,” beginning its fourth season the same night) and late-20-something San Francisco gay men (“Looking,” beginning its second). Now it adds 30-something Los Angeles straight people in this sometimes bleakly comic half-hour from Jay and Mark Duplass, the brothers behind quirky films like “The Puffy Chair” and “Baghead.” Mark Duplass and Melanie Lynskey play a married couple sharing a house with his best friend (Steve Zissis) and her sister (Amanda Peet).
    9. "Vikings" (2.3 million)
  • Talking about wanting to kill your boss may not be that uncommon, but it does put a damper on things when said boss actually ends up murdered. When the police came to ask questions, they ended up learning that the Cranston brothers had recently resigned to ride their motorcycles cross-country. Until they could be cleared, the two men were both suspects.
    《经济学人》的数据显示,在2010年,亚洲的整形手术总量超过了580万例,而在美国这个数字仅为450万多一点。
    ……又唱又跳,希望能得到工作。
  • overall
    Whether or not any sort of BlackBerry-Samsung deal actually happens, the development highlights next wave of innovation (and litigation) in mobile technology: one centered on access control methods and containing corporate breachesin an increasingly mobile world.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 四川企业8亿元洽购意大利家具名企 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

万物互联还太早 智能家居领域或先行

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

湖南衡南县:贫困户喜搬新房

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

4地上调最低工资标准:上海9连涨 多地年内或跟进

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

家居企业“出海”看起来很美 抱团出海操作难

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • The upshot is that Chinese trade looks to have been surprisingly strong last month. We expect exports to continue to perform well in the coming months on the back of strong global demand.
  • "某时,世界呈现给我们是相互分隔的,但是这些电影和电视作品让我们感觉世界是相通的,"美国电影学院的总裁兼首席执行官Bob Gazzale如是说。"美国电影学院奖表彰这些电影艺术家们,勇于挑战,让我们受到鼓舞,娱乐,又励志,最后让我们意识到,我们都有着同样的心跳,"
  • 二手交易持续攀升 二线城市土地市场成焦点

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 8月24日
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • A video of Bi Fujian, a popular television host, poking fun at a song from a Cultural Revolution-era opera about the Chinese civil war, with his own critical asides about Mao and the Communist Party, appeared online in April. Despite the government's efforts to contain its spread, it circulated widely, with some commenters defending Mr. Bi's opinions and his right to express them.
    报告称,北上广深等一线城市居民承受着较大的经济压力;而四线及以下城市的工作机会较少,人脉在生活的各个方面都起着重要作用。
    回归白人占统治地位的社会,实施排外的国民身份认同,这样的事情不太可能发生。移民一旦停止,肯定会损害西方国家的经济;如果大举驱逐已经到达的移民,肯定会引起社会与道德上的损失。那些看似来“插队”的人群其实是在寻觅一个机会,加入到一个长久以来把他们拒之门外的进程中来。
  • 榜单前十位还包括:第五名的亚马逊总裁杰夫·贝佐斯,第六名的Facebook的马克·扎克伯格,位居第七的甲骨文公司老板拉里·埃里森,第八名的迈克尔·彭博及并列第九的科赫兄弟(大卫·科赫和迈克尔·科赫)。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • ……被要求向面试官简单介绍自己,结果她没有什么可说的。
  • 供需双向回落 多城土地流拍
  • 雷文斯克罗夫特最终不再从事教学工作,他创办了Enabling Enterprise,这是一家寻求减轻学校和企业脱节现象的机构,它让学生走出教室,从事实践项目并实地探访包括瑞银(UBS)和富而德律所(Freshfields)在内的企业。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 佛山限购新政满月 新房交易环比降近四成
  • Household substance abuse
  • 溢价率回升 二线城市成房企拿地主战场
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

深度解读:家居行业未来发展的三个突破口

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 李宇嘉:房价“内生性”上涨驱动政策调整
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 中国主流媒体房地产宣传联盟推出房企失信黑名单
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

Since 1983 the annual Spring Festival Gala hosted by China Central Television has always been an important part of the Chinese Lunar New Year celebration - no wonder every move organizers make becomes the center of attention.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

“New Yorkers have been waking up and realizing this long period of prosperity has wreaked a little bit of havoc on things that we think of as classic New York,” said Simeon Bankoff, the executive director of the Historic Districts Council, noting that 2015 will mark the 50th anniversary of the New York City landmarks preservation law. “Things we always thought were going to be there are just closing left and right.”
据中国的官方媒体报道,2017年中国电影票房收入增长了13.5%,而今年仅略有下降。
戛纳电影节素以质问与嘲笑著名。在本届电影节上,《青木原树海》(Sea of Trees)成为第一部遭遇观众挑剔的电影。该片由格斯?范?桑特Gus Van Sant指导。在媒体放映场,《青木原树海》遭遇嘲弄的风暴,陷入了嘘声之海。由于这些发生在首映红毯前,恶评迅速传播,使得盛典蒙上阴影。娜奥米?沃茨(Naomi Watts )和 马修?麦康纳(Matthew McConaughey)走上红毯时,《每日电讯报》(Daily Telegraph)形容此场景为“极其糟糕却又引人瞩目的羞辱之途”。但是在随后的新闻发布会上,马修?麦康纳,这位来自德克萨斯的演员表情坦然,“每个人都有权倒喝彩,正如他们有权喝彩一样,”他说道。我相信我们都知道他的意思。
?随着飓风桑迪在周一晚上到周二转移到大西洋中部各州,数十人死亡、数百英里的海岸线被淹没以及纽约市的基础设施遭受了巨大打击。数以百万计的人被置于停电的境况下。
vt. 安慰,使
[.dem?'kr?tik]
《海底总动员2》将于2016年6月17日上映。
The booming Internet economy now is playing an increasingly important role in supporting wealth growth in China's IT industry.
今年临近尾声之际,欧洲央行在12月3日投票削减其存款利率至负0.3%,并扩大资产购买,使量化宽松计划的规模达到1.46万亿欧元。此举出炉十几天后,美联储(Federal Reserve)自2006年以来首次提高利率,突显大西洋两岸正在推行的货币政策截然不同。
Recipient: Their Royal Highnesses The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge (joint winners)

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

大爆发,石英石产业发展新局面

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 我曾经看到经理们因为工作环境大都是男性所以没有雇佣一位女性。他们不会在乎那个女人有多聪明,多厉害。她就是不合适。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 《胡润百富榜》的编制者胡润(Rupert Hoogewerf,见文首图)表示:“姚振华代表了中国金融投资创造财富的新浪潮。”
  • 646项国家标准发布 养老机构由低到高分为五级
  • 定义自己
  • 楼市新政效果显现 广州二手楼市恢复常态
  • 另外两个在2014年表现上佳的行业可谓风马牛不相及:高科技(上涨16%)和必需消费品(上涨13.2%)。市场上最激进与最保守的两大投资领域前后脚撞线,留下困惑的旁观者们不知该如何解释这一现象。2014年,美国失业率大幅下降,GDP呈增长势头,为何领跑市场的却是医疗保健、必需消费品、公用事业等周期性最不明显的行业?令专家们懊恼的是,有些时候就是没有令人满意的答案。美国作家库尔特o冯内古特曾写道:

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 大庄户外竹材借住建部产品标准之势领跑行业
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Current edition of the World Cup is on pace to average more goals per game than any tournament since 1958.
  • 9. Occupational therapist

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

中英两国4000亿合作协议背后的LED照明市场

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