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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

有效率的老板必须是有效率的决策者。他或她在每个小的决定上不能有半点犹豫。要能快速精准的做出决定----对以后的结果承担责任(请看第二条)----这是很重要的商业技巧,特别是在管理他人的时候。

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9.消防员
n. 妥协,折衷,折衷案
多年以前,布莱恩·克兰斯顿还未在《绝命毒师》中饰演沃尔特·怀特,他曾和哥哥一起在一家餐馆打工。那儿的主厨是个非常刻薄的人。2011年,在马克·马龙的电台节目里当播客时,克兰斯顿如此描述道:"无论你对他多好,他还是讨厌你。"因此,所有的服务生平时都在谈论着如何谋杀他。克兰斯顿说这就是"他们平时讨论的所有内容"。

但多数白人常把民族和种族身份混为一谈。对很多白人来说,这种身份感觉像是支撑他们的世界最重要的支柱之一,而现在,它似乎受到了威胁。
"People didn't just search for the players and the teams. It was a cultural learning experience. It was the first World Cup in Africa, and people wanted to learn about post-Apartheid South Africa," she said. "People also wanted to find out what that noise was -- the vuvuzelas."
"Nobody can stop it. I will keep sending leaflets into North Korea at the risk of my life," Park said, adding he has always prepared to face down the North's threats.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

一线房价上涨动能不足 政策刺激效果恐不超仨月

自从6年前开始编制该榜单以来,女性学员比例稳定增长,最新一届中占42%。与管理学硕士课程中女性学员48%的比例相比,这有些低,但它高于MBA课程中35%的比例。
万分沮丧之下,他发明了可以允许自拍的东西:他称之为"伸缩杆"。因为智能手机还没发明出来,所以,连接在自拍杆末端的是一个微型相机。在杆的前端有一面小镜子,方便使用者调整他们在相机里的姿态。他在1983年为"伸缩杆"申请了专利。虽然自拍杆进行了大量生产出售,却属商业败笔——相片的质量比较差。另外,以前的研究表明,那时的女士会因自己有自拍的想法而感到尴尬。在2000年,自拍杆被韦恩·弗洛姆(Wayne Fromm)重新发明,那时,上田宏的"伸缩杆"专利期尚有三年。弗洛姆称他的自拍杆为"快捷豆荚"。他认为他才是当今自拍杆的发明者,甚至起诉其他自拍杆生产者。当被问到上田宏的自拍杆时,弗洛姆评论说它们是"先前的艺术"。
The ECB ended the year with a vote on December 3 to cut its deposit rate to minus 0.3 per cent and an expansion in asset purchases that leaves its quantitative easing programme at 1.46tn. The move came days before the US Federal Reserve increased interest rates for the first time since 2006, underlining the sharply divergent policies being pursued on either side of the Atlantic.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

美国电影学会选出了十部本年度最佳电影和电视剧。这些影片排名按字母表顺序排列,美国电影学院评审团选出这些影片的标准是促进了活动图像的艺术化、提升了美国艺术形式文化遗产的魅力、对观众和艺术者有所启发、在美国社会上占有一席之地。
At least 120 million American voters had been expected to cast votes in the race between the Democratic incumbent and Romney after a campaign focused on how to repair the ailing U.S. economy。
The research comes at a time of increasing anti-China rhetoric in US politics, and ahead of three politically sensitive anti-dumping cases this summer against Chinese steel imports that could result in the US imposing punitive duties of as much as 500 per cent.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 对“最后的共同祖先”的认识发生了改观
  • 专家称城市分化加剧 一线城市房价有望继续上涨
  • 5、低效的邮件沟通
  • 一二线城市楼市转暖 今年各地调控措施已超164次
  • 新华社:吉林省纪委监委启动对长春长生生物疫苗案件腐败问题调查追责
  • 马纳尔·阿尔-谢里夫(Manal al-Sharif)
    《日落》

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 研究员莫开伟:波诡云谲的楼市谁是幕后推手, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

北京二手房源环比猛增三成 降价房源占了92%

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

专家:四环房价进入8万时代不客观 仍在4万左右

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • “但书中又总是有人质疑他、说服他、跟他说‘慢着’。”
    2017年度国家公务员考试上周日开考,大学生自主创业和"玉兔"月球车等最近的热门话题进入国考考题。
  • Justin Bieber rounded out the top five, honoured for his work with Pencils of Promise and his Believe Charity Drive.
    Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC).” Previous reports have pegged the screen size at just under the 5 inches of Samsung’s Galaxy 4.
    Brazil lost that 1950 final, 2-1, to Uruguay, a historic humiliation that still stings Brazilian fans today. Belmonte, 85, hopes he'll get to see his country regain its honor. "I hope Brazil will be able to win this time," he said. "This is our revenge. I want to go see our revenge."
    蒋依依说,2013年人民币兑美元汇率上涨近3%,使北京成为了一个更加昂贵的旅游目的地。
    Consumer Electronics Show

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 智能家居落地难?国内智能家居助新加坡智慧国建设
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 新华社:新房降价空间打开 开发商割肉让利

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

16. 最受忽视的真相。“这个行业内有一个神话,就是年轻男性主导着票房,”11月,索尼电影娱乐公司电影组主席汤姆·罗斯曼(Tom Rothman)在接受《好莱坞报道者》(Hollywood Reporter)采访时说。在同一次采访中,沃尔特·迪士尼公司的主席艾伦·F·霍恩(Alan F. Horn)试图把问题简化,“演员薪酬受很多变量影响。比如说,安吉丽娜·朱莉出演《沉睡魔咒》(Maleficent)的片酬就比黛西·雷德利(Daisy Ridley)出演《星球大战》(Star Wars)高,但她们都是女性。”(哦,多谢了艾伦!)
HOUSE OF CARDS (Netflix, Feb. 27) Netflix’s political grand guignol gets a 13-episode third season. Kim Dickens of “Treme” joins Kevin Spacey and Robin Wright in the cast, and two members of Pussy Riot will make a guest appearance.
However, the figures suggest that the pace of Chinese investment in western economies may be slowing.
这位开国之父指出,选举人团既会防范外国势力想在我们议会中获得不当影响力之心,又会确保总统之位永远不会落到并非具备必要素质的杰出者那种人手里。
今年11月,我国网约车司机将须通过考试获得从业资格证。
只有资产管理公司利润出现上升,同比增长16.64%,至37.17亿元人民币。
目前全国11个省的52所高校配备了自动售货机,出售艾滋病检测试剂以供学生自查。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 1. “The Assassin” and “Mad Max: Fury Road” (tie) Hou Hsiao-Hsien and George Miller directed the year’s two best commercial movies, both of which should be seen on the biggest screen you can find.
  • 最新家居市场争夺战 亚马逊Echo拉开序幕
  • It's a travel pillow that bends to support your head in any position.
    梅瑟威一场拳赛的要价可以高达7000万英镑,但是他去年的收入只排在榜单上位居第16位。去年梅瑟威的拳赛收入达到了2000万英镑,此外他的服装品牌TMT(The Money Team)也给他贡献了500万英镑。
  • 苏州发布名贵家具鉴定标识 辨真假只需手机“扫一扫”
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 俄罗斯总统普京说,无论谁在明年的美国总统大选中胜出,他都希望改善与美国的关系。
    但是他们摆烂的原因还是各不相同的。比如热火队,他们试图通过输球来锻炼队中的年轻人并且确立一个核心;比如魔术队,他们试图摆脱停滞不前的过程。
  • It was a confident, high-powered investment firm with credit lines at top financial institutions. It made big bets using borrowed money to buy assets and generate higher returns. But when the market for those assets went south, lenders demanded more collateral until the firm suddenly collapsed. Many frightened lenders clamped down on all borrowers, setting off an overall credit crunch.
    4.室外类比赛项目
  • 8、苹果发布会
    据周一发布的一份报告显示,伴随对教育和研发的投资正在不断转变为新的专利和许可,中国首次跻身世界最具创新力经济体前25强。
  • Turn your work in on time. If extra credit work is offered, do that too.
    Making Airbnb go away might not be so easy. A recent Quinnipiac poll found that 56 percent of the responders thought New Yorkers should be allowed to rent rooms out to strangers. “We don’t want to turn into hotels, but at the same time people want to rent out their apartments sometimes,” said Paul R. Gottsegen, the president of Halstead Management Company, which manages 250 residential properties in the city.
    毕业3年后的平均薪资和薪资涨幅是主要的标准,各自占到排行榜权重的20%。在排名前25名的商学院当中,大多在这些标准中至少有一项得分较高。如果去掉平均薪资和薪资涨幅这两项标准,排名前十的商学院大多仍排名前十。只有南洋商学院(Nanyang Business School)和中欧国际工商学院(China Europe International Business School)例外,它们在博士和研究这一项上表现不佳。
  • A lot of people study better with others. If that's you, form a study group in your class or join one that's already organized.
    Shapley made early theoretical inroads into the subject, using game theory to analyze different matching methods in the 1950s and 1960s. Together with US economist David Gale, he developed a mathematical formula for how 10 men and 10 women could be coupled in a way so that no one would benefit from trading partners. While that may have had little impact on marriages and divorces, the algorithm they developed has been used to better understand many different markets.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 菏泽“取消限售”影响有多大 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

企业债发行同比翻番 房地产行业占比近25%

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

致焦虑的卫浴企业:左右徘徊才是痛苦的根源

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

三线城市房价创6年来单月环比最大涨幅

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

国家统计局:2017年全国房地产开发投资109799亿元 比上年名义增长7.0%

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Two arrests have been made in connection to the shooting death of 14-year-old Lecent Ross, police said Thursday.
  • "Investing in improving innovation quality is essential for closing the innovation divide," said Soumitra Dutta, dean of Cornell College of Business and co-editor of the report.
  • 王鲁生:品牌建设之道——别让品牌跟不上产品的影子

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • London Business School has topped the European table for the third year running — but continental rivals lead the European schools in the individual rankings used to compile it.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • “能被评为全球最国际化的大学之一,这个名单中的所有学校都是值得祝贺的。这标志着它们拥有巨大的潜力、竞争力和发展动力。”
    张景岫说:“学生本身并不适合创业。”他补充说道,职业院校的学生比大学生更渴望自主创业。
    [.n?vi'gein]
  • The pandas did some tai-chi in Trafalgar Square before kicking on at a panda party in Convent Garden as part of the first ever Panda Awareness Week.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 《华胥引》
  • 北京:中介不配合 房源全下架
  • SAVANNAH, GA.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 房产证迟几年办有哪些影响
  • Household substance abuse
  • 农地改革呼唤更多创意
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

中国墙纸业发展步履维艰,原因何在?

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 云浮:引领石材标准化 助力企业转型升级
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 国务院常务会议落实降低社会保险费率部署 降低失业和工伤保险费率政策再延长一年
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

Exports from China to Brazil of everything from cars to textiles shipped in containers fell 60 per cent in January from a year earlier while the total volume of imports via containers into Latin America’s biggest economy halved, according to Maersk Line, the world’s largest shipping company.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

n. (准备好演出的)节目,保留剧目,(计算机的)指令表
Mr Koepke argues, however, that the role of US interest rates in provoking EM crises has not been fully understood. He presents evidence that the probability of EM crises is substantially higher during a conjunction of three conditions: during a Fed tightening cycle, when the federal funds rate is above its natural rate (the rate that leads actual output to converge to potential output), and when market participants are surprised by signals that the Fed will tighten policy faster than previously expected.
明星大撞衫 看谁更好看(二)
2. 谷歌文档
支持:《敦刻尔克》讲述了一场重要的历史事件,深受观众和影评人喜爱。
这份刊登在圣保罗报上的调查结果显示,在周六巴西和智利的比赛中,67%的现场观众称自己是白人,而90%的观众来自巴西两大顶尖经济阶层,约占全国人口的15%。
2010年中国农民工能否拿到城市户口?
“这可以归结为3个问题:怎样推动平台不断升级,怎样继续强化团队,怎样打造与合作伙伴的一系列联盟,以加速自身成长?”凯斯表示。
在日本博览会上,我们非常荣幸地采访到了虚渊玄,还有Nitro+社长Takaki Kosaka。让我们开始吧。
源于:commend(v 称赞;推荐)

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

衡阳市政府撤销关于暂停执行限价通知

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • Companies are always looking to save money, and outsourcing some roles to freelancers can help. Virtual assistants can perform many of the duties of full-time staffers, but with less commitment. These workers could help expand a business, or just encourage things to run more smoothly.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 37| “Anomalisa” (Charlie Kaufman/Duke Johnson)|
  • 制假售假横行 涂料市场呼唤诚信经营
  • 根据中国海关总署(General Administration of Customs)的数据,在经历了此前一个月的同比下跌1.4%之后,11月份中国的进口同比增长6.7%,至1522亿美元,远高于同比收缩1.9%的预测中值。
  • 安置房空置暴露的“虚症”
  • n. 回想,记忆,纪念品

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 新政惠及9163万人 工薪所得无需缴个税
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 两乐设备是青铜做的可以追溯到2000多年前中国的汉朝(公元前206年–公元220)。
  • consistently

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

智能家居无线技术 WIFI和蓝牙的互补

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